- A Discourse on the Method - René Descartes - Google книги.
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Descartes' Discourse marks a watershed in European thought; in it, the author sets out in brief his radical new philosophy, which begins with a proof of the existence of the self the famous "cogito ergo sum". Next he deduces from it the existence and nature of God, and ends by offering a radical new account of the physical world and of human and animal nature.
Written in everyday language and meant to be read by common people of the day, it swept away all previous philosophical traditions. This new translation is an ideal introduction to Descartes for the general reader. It is accompanied by a substantial introductory essay from Renaissance scholar Ian Maclean that is designed to provide in-depth historical and philosophical context.
The essay draws on Descartes' correspondence to examine what brought him to write his great work, and the impact it had on his contemporaries.
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A detailed section of notes explain Descartes' philosophical terminology and ideas, as well as historical references and allusions. Any reader can feel comfortable diving in to this classic work of Renaissance philosophical thought. About the Series: For over years Oxford World's Classics has made available the broadest spectrum of literature from around the globe. Each affordable volume reflects Oxford's commitment to scholarship, providing the most accurate text plus a wealth of other valuable features, including expert introductions by leading authorities, voluminous notes to clarify the text, up-to-date bibliographies for further study, and much more.
The translation is clean and clear. Overall the work is to be recommended. Convert currency. Add to Basket. Condition: New. Language: English. Brand new Book. This new translation is accompanied by a substantial introductory essay which draws on Descartes's correspondence to examine his motivation and the impact of his great work on his contemporaries.
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Discourse on the Method and Meditations on First Philosophy by Rene Descartes
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Description 'I concluded that I was a substance whose whole essence or nature resides only in thinking, and which, in order to exist, has no need of place and is not dependent on any material thing. Victorian embroidery can be difficult to understand for modern viewers. Although it was viewed as an ancient and prestigious craft, its practitioners were happy to rely on speedy execution, easy shortcuts, mass-produced materials and widely-circulated patterns. A reflection on time seems to transpire through these text -iles.
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The practice of embroidery staged a tension between historicity and modernity, allowing middle-class women to engage in modern modes of production while imagining themselves as aristocratic ladies of the past. Among these, particularly striking is the appearance of a certain pincushion. It is, however, the pincushion that provides Lucy with the most startling reminder of the past:.
And why did Bretton and my fourteenth year haunt me thus? Why, if they came at all, did they not return complete? Why hovered before my distempered vision the mere furniture, while the rooms and the locality were gone? As to that pincushion made of crimson satin, ornamented with gold beads and frilled with thread-lace, I had the same right to know it as to know the screens — I had made it myself. Rising with a start from the bed, I took the cushion in my hand and examined it. Needlework was deeply concerned with time: the passing of time of course, but also history, memory and inheritance.
If Victorian needlewomen liked to imagine themselves as modern household managers producing fashionable and desirable items, they were also attuned to the historicity of needlework and their connection to previous generations of women plying the needle — a fact that Lucy is keenly aware of, when she poignantly imagines the laborious work of the handscreen maker:.
Because it is both made by hand and designed to aid the further making of textiles, the pincushion appears as the ideal repository for memory. Its potency is furthered by the fact that Lucy has made it herself, gauging the pattern with her eyes, holding the object in her hands and painstakingly working the beads, lace, and embroidery with her fingers. Like all handicrafts, it is an intrinsically tactile object, made with the hands of the maker and designed to be touched.
Am I in Bretton?
Memory is conjured by touch. As historian Malea Powell explains:. Victorian needlework can be broadly defined in two practices: plain work, which consisted in the making, hemming and mending of garments and household linen, and fancywork, which was decorative stitching such as embroidery.
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Needlework was directly linked to socio-economic position: in middle-class households, plain sewing was generally left to the servants, while the ladies of the house produced decorative needlework. In this sense, then, it was fancywork, rather than the production of utilitarian household items, that came to be intimately connected with the lived experiences and identities of middle-class women, and was, in turn, the object of delight or bitter resignation. Instead of provoking a decline in needlework, the rapid industrialisation of Britain provided new outlets and possibilities for handicraft.
The introduction of coloured, printed patterns as well as guidebooks and magazines communicating tips, techniques and new ideas drew a new generation of eager enthusiasts. The scope was huge, and practitioners used shells, feathers and hair along with the more traditional needle and thread. Nevertheless, embroidery persisted and remained popular.
www.hiphopenation.com/mu-plugins/allen/dating-someone-on-the.php First, the rapid industrialisation of Britain led to the geographic shift of middle-class housing from the city centres to the suburbs. Far from the hustle and bustle of city life, deprived of remunerative employment, bourgeois women undertook domestic handicraft to fill the void of listless days, but also to fulfil their sacred duty of making the house a home.
A second crucial factor in the popularisation of fancywork was the emergence of a culture of consumerism. As a result of mass-production, a great number of objects, materials and household items became cheaply and readily available for the first time in history. While one would naturally assume that this development would lead to the neglect of time-consuming handicrafts, in fact, the exact opposite happened. In the years following the industrial revolution, the increase in printing, and the commodification of society led to the flourishing of crafts.
Weekly or monthly periodicals published instructions on how to make the latest coveted item. The production of household goods by women had the dual purpose of showcasing the coziness of the parlour and the available leisure time to produce luxury wares. Akin to embroidery in that it consisted in the creation of a motif with thread upon a canvas foundation, Berlin wool work brought ornamental needlework to a completely new level.
While traditional embroidery involved working a design in thread on top of a plain silk, cotton or linen background, Berlin wool work relied on mass-printed grids, coarse canvas and colourful wool. Embroiderers were to purchase a picture, generally copied from a popular painting, which was divided into a grid, and transfer it onto a thick piece of canvas, using simple stitches and thick wool in order to go faster. Sometimes, the design was printed directly on the canvas, making transfer redundant. In other cases, designs were printed by machines on perforated paper: one had only to lay the paper on fabric and colour the design in with thread.
Berlin wool work enjoyed such popularity that, by the mid th century, it had come to stand for embroidery as a whole. It allowed Victorian women to churn out identical copies of mass-printed designs, and turn them into chair backs, slippers, cushions and so forth. Just like factory work, Berlin wool work was precise, reliable and fast, with predictable outcomes. In the 19 th century, then, what had previously been a skilled craft undertaken by the aristocratic elite, came to be within the reach of middle-class women. Valuing quantity over quality, speed and modernity over tradition, uniform production over individuality, Berlin wool work positioned itself, not against, but alongside industrial production.
The point was not to obtain a one-of-a-kind work of art; on the contrary, it was to obtain the exact replica of a coveted item that could be bought ready-made. Fancywork thus acted as an alternative mode of production, a metonymic female locus rivalling the larger space of industrial production identified as male. Berlin wool work, private collection. While the Victorian ideology of domesticity solidified the assignment of middle-class women to the home, fancywork allowed them to assert their own productivity, metaphorically bringing the factory into the parlour.
Fancywork allowed women to participate in the modes of production that the British economy was based on while, at the same time, making objects that were more meaningful than generic factory-made products. It encapsulated the values of the Victorian bourgeoisie, while remaining affordable and accessible to most; it bridged the gap between the home and the factory. While they presented needlewomen with constantly updated patterns, stitches and short-cuts permitting women to produce more handicrafts at a faster rate, craft manuals also extolled the historical legacy of needlework — a reflection, perhaps, of Victorian anxieties about the rapidly increasing pace of life.
The craft ideal , however, sought to preserve the narrative of handicraft as an ancient and prestigious activity — something that was particularly true for embroidery, which, more than other handicrafts, had important historical resonances. Like Ellis, the authors of the numerous needlework guides that flooded the market in the s liked to envisage needlework as an age-old tradition inherited from woman to woman. While they knew they were addressing a readership of middle-class housewives hungry for new patterns and ideas, these authors were keen to stress the historical credentials of needlework, tracing its origins back to the Bible, the ancient world and the Middle-Ages.
In looking to the past and conferring aristocratic associations to needlework, these manuals granted the works of women the prestige and seriousness of history. Needlework guidebooks were sometimes edited by, or dedicated to, women of the aristocracy or members of the royal family.