Hence, this table summarises some components of EU laws applied in the European states. Some territories of EU member states also have a special status in regard to EU laws applied. Some territories of EFTA member states also have a special status in regard to EU laws applied as is the case with some European microstates. For member states that do not have special-status territories the EU law applies fully with the exception of the opt-outs in the European Union and states under a safeguard clause or alternatively some states participate in enhanced co-operation between a subset of the EU members.
There is no fixed end to the process of integration. Integration may conflict with national sovereignty and cultural identity , and is opposed by eurosceptics. To the east of the European Union, the countries of Belarus , Kazakhstan and Russia launched the creation of the Eurasian Union in the year , which was subsequently joined by Armenia and Kyrgyzstan.
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Other states in the region, such as Moldova and Tajikistan may also join. Meanwhile, the post-Soviet disputed states of Abkhazia , Artsakh , South Ossetia , and Transnistria have created the Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations to closer integrate among each other. Several countries in Eastern Europe have engaged the EU with the aim to grow economic and political ties. The Euronest Parliamentary Assembly , established in , is the inter-parliamentary forum in which members of the European Parliament and the national parliaments of Ukraine , Moldova , Belarus , Armenia , Azerbaijan and Georgia participate and forge closer political and economic ties with the European Union.
The Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation and the Community of Democratic Choice are other organizations established to promote European integration, stability, and democracy. In , Russian President Dmitry Medvedev announced a new concept for Russian foreign politics and called for the creation of a common space in Euro-Atlantic and Eurasia area "from Vancouver to Vladivostok".
On the other hand, U. Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin in a German newspaper in called for common economic space, free-trade area or more advanced economic integration, stretching from Lisbon to Vladivostok. This idea was fully incorporated in the resolution of the Moscow Legal Forum.
Citations per year
The Forum gathered representatives of more than 20 countries including 10 CIS countries. The concept said: "Obviously, to improve its legislation Russia and other countries of CIS should be oriented toward the continental legal family of European law. The civil law system is much closer to the Russian and other CIS countries will be instrumental in harmonising legislation of CIS countries and the European Community but all values of common law should be also investigated on the subject of possible implementation in some laws and norms. It is suggested that the introduction of the concept of a Single legal space and a single Rule of Law space for Europe and CIS be implemented in four steps:.
The Euro-Mediterranean Partnership or Barcelona Process was organised by the European Union to strengthen its relations with the countries in the Mashriq and Maghreb regions. It started in with the Barcelona Euro-Mediterranean Conference , and it has been developed in successive annual meetings. The European Union enlargement of brought two more Mediterranean countries Cyprus and Malta into the Union, while adding a total of 10 to the number of Member States.
Libya has had observer status since The Union for the Mediterranean is a community of countries, mostly bordering the Mediterranean Sea , established in July Further, it will be the first partner to go beyond association by enhancing political and economic ties, entering the Single Market, and participating in some EU agencies. A visa-free regime operates among members and a free-trade area is planned. Ukraine is not an official member, but has participated in the organisation. Some members are more integrated than others, for example Russia and Belarus form a Union State.
A common currency is also planned, potentially to be named "evraz". Some other countries in the region, such as Moldova are potential members of these organisations.
The post-Soviet disputed states of Abkhazia , Artsakh , South Ossetia , and Transnistria are all members of the Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations which aims to forge closer integration. The European Union has made loose organisations and meeting with some other countries and regions.
European countries like the United Kingdom , France , Spain , Portugal have made organisations with other countries in the world with which they have strong cultural and historical links. English is considered to be the global lingua franca. European languages like English, French , Spanish , Portuguese , Italian , Russian and German are official, co-official or widely in use in many countries with a colonial past or with a European diaspora.
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European Defence Cooperation in EU Law and IR Theory
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