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Description The last twenty years has seen a resurgence in main-group chemistry, from the fundamental breakthroughs involving multiple bonding in silicon, phosphorus, and other heavier elements to the present-day applications in materials and nanotechnology.
Main-group compounds are used in the synthesis of nano- and mesoporous materials via sol-gel methods particularly in silicate chemistry , and in the preparation of materials such as boron nitrides and chemically modified single-walled nanotubes. Ceramics and dense materials are almost all made using oxides, carbides, nitrides, or borides. Inorganic polymers, such as polyphosphazenes; semiconductor group , compounds; coatings; catalystsall are important aspects of main-group chemistry.
The contents of this book cover a broad range of main-group chemistry, from the fundamental to the applied. Other books in this series.
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Periodic table of the elements , in chemistry , the organized array of all the chemical elements in order of increasing atomic number—i. See Figure 1. The initial discovery, which was made by Dmitry I.
Main Group Elements Definition
Mendeleyev in the midth century, has been of inestimable value in the development of chemistry. It was not actually recognized until the second decade of the 20th century that the order of elements in the periodic system is that of their atomic numbers , the integers of which are equal to the positive electrical charges of the atomic nuclei expressed in electronic units. In subsequent years great progress was made in explaining the periodic law in terms of the electronic structure of atoms and molecules.
This clarification has increased the value of the law, which is used as much today as it was at the beginning of the 20th century, when it expressed the only known relationship among the elements. The early years of the 19th century witnessed a rapid development in analytical chemistry—the art of distinguishing different chemical substances—and the consequent building up of a vast body of knowledge of the chemical and physical properties of both elements and compounds. This rapid expansion of chemical knowledge soon necessitated classification , for on the classification of chemical knowledge are based not only the systematized literature of chemistry but also the laboratory arts by which chemistry is passed on as a living science from one generation of chemists to another.
Relationships were discerned more readily among the compounds than among the elements; it thus occurred that the classification of elements lagged many years behind that of compounds. In fact, no general agreement had been reached among chemists as to the classification of elements for nearly half a century after the systems of classification of compounds had become established in general use.liotyaselu.tk
Note that an NBO exhibits maximal localization in accord with the Lewis model and need not serve as a basis for one of the irreducible representations of the molecular point group. A graduate subject in the inorganic chemistry program MIT. Home Content Resources Calendar. Course Logistics R in ; we use as a break-out room equipped for both lecture and computing.