This paper examines the double-dividend hypothesis, notably increasing environmental quality and reducing unemployment at the same time, that inspired ETRs implemented in several EU Member States in the s. It discusses the effectiveness of these reforms in order to improve the role of ETRs in realizing the double dividend. This article overviews the recent evolution of the environmental tax systems in the Baltic region by presenting the environmental taxes used in eight Baltic countries: Denmark, Germany, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Finland and Sweden during the period from till According to this policy brief environmental regulations make a small difference to productivity and employment; affect only marginally international competitiveness; their benefits often vastly outweigh the costs; and they induce innovation in green technologies with economy-wide benefits.
This Green tax index offers an overview of the green tax landscape around the world and a summary of what governments are putting in place. It focuses on 21 major economies. A high ranking in the Index means that the government is more active than others in using its tax system to drive sustainable business and achieve green policy objectives. This publication provides with comparative analysis of the structure and level of taxes on energy use in all OECD countries. It contains overviews of energy taxes and graphical profiles by country.
Inventory of estimated budgetary support and tax expenditures for fossil fuels , OECD, , p. This is a compilation of over measures that support fossil-fuel production or use in all OECD countries. Those measures had an overall value of about USD billion a year between and Summary of the main findings, background information on the context and methodology, and country data are available. The aim of this working paper is to assess the effectiveness of the use of different economic instruments for promoting better resource efficiency within packaging and to analyse the potential of a packaging tax for generating public revenue for EU member states.
This working paper clarifies different terms and concepts related to resource taxation. It analyses different systems of taxation on non-renewable and mineral resources in view of their possible implementation.
Regressivity of environmental taxation: myth or reality? This paper analyses the tax incidence of environmental taxation, explores the main empirical findings regarding the distributional effects of transport-related taxes and those of other environmental taxes, and presents some recent evidence on the distributional impact of energy taxation in the EU member states. Taxes on natural resources reduce use of raw materials , In: Science for Environment Policy , November , 1 p.
This is a summary of recent study that investigated how taxes on raw materials used in construction, such as gravel and sand, have reduced the use of these resources in Denmark, Sweden and the UK. This book contains an authoritative set of original contributions on environmental taxation in different topics and OECD countries. Taxes in Europe database: search. Thank you for the inspiring list. We are very grateful to see that you linked our report on alternative CSRs from last year.
Looking forward to more interesting follow-up input on environmental taxation and tax shifts in Europe. Like Like. You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Google account. You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account.
Environmental policy tools and evaluation
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Learn how your comment data is processed. The content of all documents and articles contained in this blog is the sole responsibility of the author and any opinions expressed therein do not necessarily represent the official position of the European Parliament. It is addressed to the Members and staff of the EP for their parliamentary work. Reproduction and translation for non-commercial purposes are authorised, provided the source is acknowledged and the European Parliament is given prior notice and sent a copy. This should help to provide certainty and a sense of fairness for taxpayers.
The Committee also provides a framework for dialogue with a view to enhancing and promoting cooperation among national tax authorities; considers how new and emerging issues could affect international tax cooperation and develops assessments, commentaries and appropriate recommendations; and makes recommendations on capacity-building and the provision of technical assistance.
Fiscal policies that are specifically focussed on SDGs can also help influence behaviour and that way contribute to reaching the SDGs. Technology and innovation are boosting new developments and business models, but intense competition may mean that such businesses never manage to outgrow the start-up phase. Fiscal evasion on a scale displayed through the Panama and Paradise Papers has caused the G20 and the OECD to issue detailed guidance against corporate base erosion and profit shifting the BEPS project and the European Union has adopted an Anti-Tax Avoidance Directive with measures to prevent aggressive tax planning, boost tax transparency and create a level playing field for all business in the European Union.
Raids by fiscal intelligence and crime units in countries are becoming regular occurrences it seems. In addition, the media watchdogs relentlessly hunt for illicit financial flows money laundering, tax evasion and corporate mismanagement that they can report on and corporates they can scandalize. Corporate tax contributions have become a reporting item for journalists and underpayment of taxes is an argument for corporate vilification. This is a concern for corporate management, supervisory boards and shareholders alike as corporate brand and reputation generally go hand-in-hand with investor interest and consumer approval.
Being socially responsible and tax compliant has becoming a basic standard that corporates should meet to be respected and successful in business. There is an increasing emphasis on socially responsible business objectives and similar business models by consumers and employees. Younger consumer generations consume differently from those before them and value the story behind the product or service they buy or use. They increasingly demand products and services with a sustainable footprint SDG 12 and that those do not contribute to climate change SDG Providers of products and services may have little choice but for to manufacture and produce consumer goods considering the SDGs.nandfranicsmog.tk
Taxation, Innovation and the Environment
The above developments indicate that the moral compass of society is shifting dramatically. The focus on shareholder returns for investors is being overshadowed by the importance of protecting those that are less well-off in society. Companies have good reason to support the SDGs, however: enhanced education, the contribution to society by working women, economic growth and world peace SDGs 4, 5, 8, and 16 respectively all have immediate positive benefit for corporates as well as for the world population. What do the above developments mean for domestic resource mobilization?
And considering the need for DRM, could corporates be induced to pay more taxes?
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Also, if economies are doing well, and business is prospering, companies may be less inclined to focus on reducing their tax costs. In addition, greater transparency of corporate tax policies, business challenges and what taxes corporates eventually end up paying, might help create an understanding for the challenges of business and generate some trust from governments that corporates do not necessarily have a deliberate and evil plan to cheat them out of their due tax revenue. These all could be arguments for corporates to more easily pay more taxes.
But is it enough to have relevant impact for effectuating the SDGs? The thinking behind this new approach is that mistrust and antagonism between corporates and government can easily become costly and time-consuming for both parties involved: government being required to design and implement more rules and corporates being required to present more evidence and do more reporting.
The B Team principles have been developed with input from civil society, investors and representatives from international institutions. They cover areas including tax management, interactions with authorities and other stakeholders and reporting. The B Team hopes that examples of good practice can help build a new business consensus. They maintain that business has a fundamental responsibility to comply with tax legislation in every country they operate in, to the pay the right amount of tax and at the right time. By way of reciprocity, they hope and expect that governments which collect these taxes will be more responsive and accountable to them.
Environmental taxation - Encyclopédie de l'environnement
Their policy is to only use business structures that are driven by commercial considerations and aligned with business activity and which have genuine substance. They do not seek abusive tax results. Rather, they seek to develop cooperative relationships with tax authorities based on mutual respect, transparency and trust, and engage in inter national dialogue with governments, business groups and civil society to support the development of effective tax systems, legislation and administration.
That the B Team Principles may not be ready for immediate adoption by every corporate entity, is understandable. For one, size matters. Larger multinational enterprises may have more critical mass and opportunity to switch to principled transparency and handle possible related audits and reviews than small or midsize corporates. They may also be able to invest more easily in the corporate infrastructure needed to operate according to the B Team Principles.
But operating in an environment in which authorities, civil society and potentially even consumers can turn against your business at the drop of a hat because they consider your company as being an opportunistic tax evader is not a sustainable option and merits reconsideration. Clearly the B Team members must have seen good reason to change the way they do business. This cannot be mere altruism: it is an attempt to restore dignity in doing business and reaping the benefits of being a Good Corporate Citizen.
That a well-functioning tax system is a fundamental requirement to help meet the SDGs is discussed earlier. That corporate taxpayers may benefit from paying their fair share of taxes is discussed as well. But what should the role of tax practitioners be in this context? Current developments foreshadow that tax practitioners need to carefully consider how they advise their clients on tax matters going forward.
Most likely, the trend of regulating fiscal behaviour has not yet peaked.
Pressed by public opinion, political parties and governments, regulators are beginning to require financial institutions to specifically include aggressive taxation in the Know Your Customer KYC and Anti-Money Laundering AML procedures. The Dutch financial services regulator, for example, has made tax integrity a focus area for its license holders and is expected to issue guidance on aggressive tax planning the first quarter of The impact hereof has been immediate, however, as at least the Dutch banks are busy scrutinizing their customer bases and are offboarding customers.
New customers may find that onboarding takes more time and documentation than they had initially expected. Similarly, professional service providers like trust companies are required to have adequate policies in place to avoid servicing clients that engage in aggressive tax planning. Professional organizations that oversee these service providers are also following suit and drafting frameworks to require their constituents to adhere to principles of legality, fairness, reciprocity and proportionality while practicing.
The above-mentioned institutions have in common that they perform a gatekeeper function, and gatekeepers are being forced to explicitly monitor fiscal behaviour of those that want to engage in the business or professions they represent or oversee. Information obtained through the reports will be exchanged to all EU Member States as of October 31, At this time, it is unclear what the consequences will be of reported transactions, other than that they will be exchanged and reviewed by tax authorities. When asked about the new rules and levels of review that are being put in place by the gatekeepers, business representatives generally mention significant concerns about the rising cost of compliance to implement and meet the new requirements.
Also, inconsistent application of these rules across jurisdictions is mentioned as risk for not having a level playing field, which seems unfair and may induce moral hazard. But interestingly, it is also observed that many corporates expect they will not be picky about reporting and rather over-report than under-report, They also are quite pleased with the prospect that they can be engaged in business through or with another party that is vetted somehow as being ethical about tax matters.
What should tax practitioners do?
On the one hand keeping an eye on unreasonable and unnecessary tax cost can be considered a core responsibility of each tax professional. Advising clients to stay within the contours of the applicable tax laws obviously is a core responsibility as well. But what seems to be new is the realization that rendering tax advice necessarily includes an assessment of stakeholder impact of that tax advice as well.
Tax practitioners are finding that their role includes an added responsibility: explicitly considering and clarifying what the envisaged tax structure or tax advice means for the client and its stakeholders. With that information the client and its management can properly assess what the consequences will be of implementing the tax advice received. Once assessment of stakeholder impact becomes a common practice, the step towards embracing the SDGs from a tax perspective if not more broadly suddenly is not that big anymore.