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In , when Jews were the masters of the nautical sciences in Portugal, that nation was importing slaves yearly. They spoke Arabic, Persian, Roman, Frankish, Spanish and Slavonic and "displayed a business acumen far in advance of the times. Also, Magnus, p. Notice the juxtaposition of the first two sentences of the Magnus passage:.

They accepted the state of things, and so long as they were let alone, commerce, too, became in Jewish hands a dignified, a useful, and an honourable calling. They dealt in slaves, as was the necessity of the time, and these slaves were the better off for having Jewish masters; their trading fleets sailed on the Mediterranean, and their ready-tongued cravellers brought the products of the East to the markets of the West. On August 2,, more than , Jews were expelled from Spain, ending their five century involvement in the Black hostage trade in that region.

In fact, the Spanish Jews amassed large fortunes dealing in Christian slaves and became quite prominent within Spain's hierarchy. They had obtained the most important offices and positions of trust in the cabinets and counting houses of the rulers and had maintained great influence over the regional trade causing many to believe that the Jews exercised an unhealthy domination over the economy of the region.

The rulers were convinced enough to order all Jews to either convert to Christianity or leave Spain. The Marranos were those compulsorily converted Jews and their descendants who outwardly became Christians but secretly continued to meet in the synagogue, celebrated feast days and observed the Jewish Sabbath. The name marrano may be derived.

In , Spain began a series of conversion drives to convert all Jews in Spain to Christianity See the section entitled, "The Spanish Inquisition" , and in unprecedented numbers and with little resistance, the Jews converted. The "Marranos," also called conversos the converted , or nefiti the neophytes , or "New Christians," were simply charged with not being Catholic. The same applied to the Muslims, who were expelled in like manner and in greater numbers than the Jews. Some fifty thousand Jews chose to convert rather than leave their land and their riches.

Contrary to popular notions, those who left were not refugees searching for religious freedom, but entrepreneurs looking for cconomic opportunities. When they fled, they brought few Torah scrolls and even fewer copies of the Jewish holy book Talmud with them. When asked what he thought most Marranos knew of Judaism after their flight from Spain and Portugal, Roth answered in one word - "Nothing. The day after the Spanish expulsion, Christopher Columbus, whose actual name was Cristobol Colon, took a group of Jewish refugees with him to the New World.

But it was not the queen or the king who funded the voyage. George Cohen, among many Jewish historians, proclaims that wealthy Jews financed the expeditions of Columbus , and adds That the story of Isabella's jewels "is not founded on facts," but rather it was an invention "intended to glorify the Queen. Cohen, p.

The Secret Relationship Between Blacks and Jews

He says p. The connection between the Jews and the discovery of America was not, however, merely a question of fortuitous coincidence. The epoch-making expedition of was as a matter of fact very largely a Jewish, or rather a Marrano, enterprise. A few scholars, including Roth, present strong evidence that Columbus was himself a Jew. He hid his Jewishness, they say, because "no Spanish Jew could ever have expected aid from the king and queen of Spain, so the explorer claimed to be an Italian Catholic.

The French ambassador to Spain, she reveals, refers to "Columbus the. Alonso de la Calle, whose very name denoted that he was born in the Jewish quarter. See Kayserling Christopher Columbus, pp. The Church, as is well known, raised many objections to the use of tobacco, and King James l's pedantic treatise only voiced general prejudice. Jewish Rabbis, on the other hand, hailed the use of tobacco as an aid to sobriety. From him we learn that Cristobal Colon who never called himself Christopher Columbus and never spoke or wrote Italian was the son of Susanna Fontanarossa [also spelled Fonterosa] and Domingo Colon of Pontevedra, Spain, where those bearing such surnames were Jews, some of whom had been brought before the Spanish Inquisition Letters written by him to strangers have the customary X at the top to indicate the faith of the writer, but of the thirteen letters written to his son only one bears an X, and that letter was meant to be shown to the King of Spain.

Harry L. They cite where Ferdinand, Columbus' son, writes that his father's "progenitors were of the blood royal of Jerusalem His father, Domingo Colon, was a map-seller. Did not Columbus write the King of Spain that his ancestors were interested in maps? Christopher Columbus was an experienced sailor long before his infamous voyage west. Sir Arthur Helps writes that, "In the course of [his] letters, [Columbus] speaks after the fashion of a practised slave dealer.

Two hundred were given to the masters of the ships and four hundred sold in Spain. George of the Mines in present-day Ghana, formerly known as the Gold Coast.

The Secret Relationship Between Blacks & Jews, Volume 2 Book Review | Brother Jesse Blog

Among this new generation of anti-Semites, Leonard Jeffries, in particular, has been active in fanning the rift between blacks and Jews. The issue, argues Friedman, is not that Jews engaged in exploitation but to what extent this was characteristic of Jews in the entertainment industry. On the contrary, the author documents the important role played by Jews in helping blacks move from the margin to the center of the American cultural establishment. But if there is little evidence to support the charges made by such African-American spokesmen as Jeffries, Khalil Muhammed, and Spike Lee, then where did these lies come from?

Friedman argues that the answer can only be based on anecdotal evidence passed on within the black community, especially among some black intellectuals. The Jewish exploitation of blacks in the arts is not the only calumny that divides black and Jews. Both Jeffries and the Nation of Islam have also claimed that Jews dominated the slave trade and were major owners of slaves in the New World.

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In addition, they have charged that Jewish financiers backed the major British and Dutch slave trading enterprises. Having perused the scholarship of such historians of slavery as David Brion Davis whose talk on the factual record behind these charges was cancelled by the Howard University administration for fear that his presentation would lead to violence and Harold Rrackman, Friedman shows that although a few Jews owned slaves, the evidence indicates that Jews represented no more than 2 percent of slave importers and rarely played a role in the Dutch or Rritish slave trading companies.

Furthermore, in citing Davis, Friedman makes the point that while the precise figures are impossible to establish, the number of free black planters who owned and worked slaves in the South and in the Caribbean was many times greater than the number of Jews! The University appealed the decision, arguing that Jeffries' statements disrupted the school's operations, but the appeals court upheld the verdict in April However, a month later, the U. Supreme Court ruled in another case, Waters v.

Churchill, that a government agency may punish an employee for speech if the agency shows "reasonable predictions of disruption. Oliver Koppell, used that ruling to appeal the Jeffries case to the Supreme Court. In November , the high court ordered the court of appeals to reconsider its findings. In April , the appeals court reversed itself, upholding Jeffries' dismissal as department head.

When his term was over two months later, the trustees did not reappoint Jeffries, but chose Professor Moyibi Amoda to head the Black Studies Department. Jeffries appealed the decision to the Supreme Court, which refused to hear his petition. Jeffries still teaches at City College as a tenured professor, and still continues to speak at colleges and universities. The book is an anonymously written conspiracy theory of Jewish domination of the slave trade published by the Nation of Islam, the Black Muslim group led by Minister Louis Farrakhan.

Three Jewish students-described later by Martin as "Hillel representatives"-sat in on a lecture at the beginning of the semester during the period when students may attend a variety of classes to choose their courseload. In this speech, and another one within the same month entitled "Broadside No.

In his second speech, Martin also stated that Jews controlled the civil rights movement to the detriment of African-Americans; that Jewish-owned publishing companies had conspired with Jewish academics to control scholarship on African-American history and culture; and that Jews today are engaged in a conservative, racist "offensive" against Black progress.

Martin has taught at Wellesley since and been tenured since In The Jewish Onslaught , Martin describes a "conspiracy" against him at the school that includes the three Jewish students who attended his class and ADL. Professor Selwyn Cudjoe, the director of Africana Studies at Wellesley, has been one of Martin's most outspoken critics; African Americans who disagree with Martin, including Cudjoe, become characterized by him as "handkerchief heads," "Uncle Tom house Negroes," "good Negroes" and "unthinking Negro stooges.

The self-published book was barely on the market a week when the president of Wellesley, Diana Chapman Walsh, wrote to 40, graduates, parents and friends to denounce it. She wrote that the book "gratuitously attacks individuals and groups at Wellesley College through innuendo and the application of racial and religious stereotype.

However, the college did not censure Martin and his tenure status was not affected. Martin issued a typically paranoid-style response to Walsh's criticism, claiming that the college administration had conspired against him and was attempting to silence Black people.

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In the summer of , Wellesley president Walsh denied Martin a merit raise, challenging his scholarship. The History Department, with which Wellesley had cross-listed his courses, dropped his classes from its offerings, so students would no longer receive history credit for a Martin class. Martin continues to teach and to spread his venomous views in speaking engagements at universities throughout the country. Speakers such as Martin and Leonard Jeffries are in demand-and paid handsomely-because of the notoriety derived from their anti-Semitic and racist remarks.

Bigotry has become a lucrative career choice. The prominence of pseudo-scholars such as Jeffries and Martin shows that anti-Semitism and bigotry are no longer fringe activities on some campuses, but occupy a growing place in the realm of academic debate. The ivory tower has been breached at its core, and there are undoubtedly students who take their cue from the ostensibly respected professors entrusted with their academic development. Instead of learning the skills of critical thinking and how to work together, students of different ethnic backgrounds are pitted against each other by such academic bigots in an ever-downward spiral of suspicion and prejudice.

Just as racism has infected some academic offerings, views such as Jeffries' and Martin's have seeped from the classroom into the activities of everyday campus life. In speeches and newspapers on campus, Jews are portrayed by some Black activists-either students or speakers invited by student groups-as bloodsuckers, architects of the slave trade and controllers of finance and the media.

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